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Wednesday, February 15, 2006


Eugene Airport (IATA Airport Code: EUG), also known as Mahlon Sweet Field, is owned and operated by the City of Eugene, Oregon. It is the fifth-largest airport in the Pacific Northwest, providing commercial air service to a six-county region in mid-Oregon. Eugene Airport is served by three air carriers: America West Express, Horizon Air, and Skywest dba United Express. Approximate flight times between Eugene and non-stop destinations are: Eugene/Denver, Colorado 2 hours 22 minutes Eugene/Las Vegas, Nevada 1 hour 45 Minutes Eugene/Los Angeles, California 2 hours 15 minutes Eugene/Phoenix, Arizona 2 hours 25 minutes Eugene/Portland, Oregon 40 minutes Eugene/San Francisco, California 1 hour 30 minutes Eugene/ Seattle, Washington 1 hour 5 minutes


The parking facility is attended 24 hours a day and contains 237 short-term and more than 1000 long-term parking spaces in the main lot, with an additional 582 spaces in the overflow lot. When the overflow lot is in use, shuttle service to and from the terminal is available. Short-term parking is $1.00 per half hour or $12.00 per day. Long-term parking is $6.00 per day or $36 for a seven-day week. Credit cards, local checks, and cash are accepted. Handicap parking spaces are all located in the short term lot and are all charged at the long term rate of $6.00 per day.

Tuesday, February 14, 2006


This article is about the ancient history Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. The name is also applied to places in New York and Indiana, United States: see Nineveh, Indiana and Nineveh, New York. Template:Ancient Mesopotamia Nineveh (Assyrian city of Ninua) was an important city in ancient Assyria, lying within the area of the modern city of Mosul in Iraq. This exceeding great city as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris, along which it stretched for some 50 kilometres (30 miles), having an average breadth of 20 km (10 mi) or more from the river back toward the eastern hills. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins. Situated at the confluence of the Tigris and Khosr, Nineveh was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris. Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became one of the greatest of all ancient cities.


Nineveh is mentioned about 18th century BC as a worship place of Ishtar, who was responsible for the citys early importance. There is no large body of evidence to show that Assyrian monarchs built at all extensively in Nineveh during the 2nd millennium BC. When Sennacherib made the city of Ninua his capital at the end of the 8th century BC, it was already an ancient settlement. Later monarchs whose inscriptions have appeared on the Acropolis include Shalmaneser I and Tiglath-Pileser I, both of whom were active builders in Ashur, the former had founded Calah (Nimrud). Nineveh had to wait for the neo-Assyrians, particularly from the time of Ashurnasirpal II (ruled 883-859 BC) onward, for a considerable architectural expansion. Thereafter successive monarchs kept in repair and founded new palaces, temples to Sin, Nergal, Nanna, Shamash, Ishtar, and Nabu of Borsippa. It was Sennacherib who made Nineveh a truly magnificent city (c. 700 BC). He laid out fresh streets and squares and built within it the famous palace without a rival, the plan of which has been mostly recovered and has overall dimensions of about 210 by 200 m (630 by 600 ft). It comprised at least 80 rooms, of which many were lined with sculpture. A large part of tablets was found there, some of the principal doorways were flanked by human-headed bulls. At this time the total area of Nineveh comprised about 1,800 acres (7 km�), and 15 great gates penetrated its walls. An elaborate system of 18 canals brought water from the hills to Nineveh, and several sections of a magnificently constructed aqueduct erected by the same monarch were discovered at Jerwan, about 40 km (25 miles) distant. Ninevehs greatness was short-lived. About 633 BC the Second Assyrian Empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about 625 BC, being joined by the Babylonians and Susiana, again attacked it. Nineveh fell in 612 BC, and was razed to the ground. The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them. After having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from beyond the Tigris to Asia Minor and Egypt, the city vanished like a dream. Before the excavations in the 1800s, our knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank. Vague memories had indeed survived of its power and greatness, but very little was definitely known about it. Other cities which had perished, as Palmyra, Syria, Persepolis, and Thebes (Greece), had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness, but of this city, imperial Nineveh, not a single vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood was only matter of conjecture. In the days of the Greek historian Herodotus, 400 BC, it had become a thing of the past, and when Xenophon the historian passed the place in the Anabasis (Xenophon) the very memory of its name had been lost. It was buried out of sight, and no one knew its grave. It is never again to rise from its ruins.


Today, Ninevehs location is marked by two large mounds, Kouyunjik and Nebi Yunus (Prophet Jonah), and the remains of the city walls (about 12 km/7.5 mi in circumference). Kouyunjik has been extensively explored. The other mound, Nebi Yunus, has not been extensively explored, because there is a Muslim shrine dedicated to the prophet Jonah on the site. In the 19th century the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon II, which were largely explored for sculptures and other precious relics. In 1847 the young British adventurer Sir Austen Henry Layard explored the ruins. In the Kuyunjik mound Layard rediscovered in 1849 the lost palace of Sennacherib across the Tigris River from modern Mosul in northern Iraq, with its 71 rooms and colossal bas-reliefs. He also unearthed the palace and famous library of Ashurbanipal with 22,000 inscribed clay tablets. The study of the archaeology of Nineveh reveals the wealth and glory of ancient Assyria under kings such as Esarhaddon (681-669 B.C.) and Ashurbanipal (669-626 B.C.). The work of exploration has been carried on almost continuously by M. Botta, George Smith (Assyriologist), and others, in the mounds of Nebi Yunus, Nimrud, Kouyunjik, and Khorsabad, and a vast treasury of specimens of Assyria was exhumed for European museums. Palace after palace was discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs. The streets of the city have been explored, the inscriptions on the bricks and tablets and sculptured figures have been read, and now the secrets of their history have been brought to light. One of the most remarkable of recent discoveries is that of the library of Assurbanipal. This library consists of about ten thousand flat bricks or tablets impressed in cuneiform with a record of the history, the laws, and the religion of Assyria, of the greatest value. These strange clay leaves found in the royal library form the most valuable of all the treasuries of the literature of the old world. The library contains also old Accadian documents, which are the oldest extant documents in the world, dating as far back as probably about the time of Sargon of Akkad. Some of the tablets found have writings mentioning the possible use of an something similar to an Archimedess screw as a process of raising water, together with tablets showing gardens. This has raised the possibility of Nineveh being the site of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The Assyrian royalty is, perhaps, the most luxurious of our century reign of Assur-bani-pal... Its victories and conquests, uninterrupted for one hundred years, have enriched it with the spoil of twenty peoples. Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites, Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers, Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal himself have pillaged Egypt and her great cities, Sais, Egypt, Memphis, Egypt, and Thebes (Greece) of the hundred gates... Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple, cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms, furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia. The bas-reliefs, alabaster slabs, and sculptured monuments found in these recovered palaces serve in a remarkable manner to confirm the Old Testament history of the kings of Israel.

Biblical Nineveh

In the Bible, Nineveh is first mentioned in Book of Genesis 10:11, which is rendered in the Revised Version, He i.e., Nimrod (king) went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh. It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3ff, 4:11) as an exceeding great city of three days journey, i.e., probably in circuit. This would give a circumference of about 100 km (60 miles). At the four corners of an irregular quadrangle are the ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Karamless and Khorsabad. These four great masses of ruins, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as composing the whole ruins of Nineveh. Nineveh is the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:36, Isa. 37:37). The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against this city. Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold (Nah.1:14, 3:19, etc.). Its end was strange, sudden, tragic. (Nah. 2:6-11) According to the Bible, it was Gods doing, his judgement on Assyrias pride (Isa. 10:5-19). In fulfilment of prophecy, God made an utter end of the place. It became a desolation. Zephaniah also (2:13-15) predicts its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was the capital. From this time there is no mention of it in Scripture till its exemplary pride and fall are recalled in the Gospel of Matthew (12:41) and the Gospel of Luke (11:32).


Calcium metabolism or calcium homeostasis is the mechanism by which the body maintains adequate calcium levels. Derangements of this mechanism lead to hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia, which both can have important consequences for health.

Normal ranges

The serum level of calcium is closely regulated with a normal total calcium of 2.2-2.6 mmol/L (9-10.5 mg/dL) and a normal ionized calcium of 1.1-1.4 mmol/L (4.5-5.6 mg/dL). The amount of total calcium varies with the level of albumin, a protein to which calcium is bound. The biologic effect of calcium is determined by the amount of ionized calcium, rather than the total calcium. Ionized calcium does not vary with the albumin level, and therefore it is useful to measure the ionized calcium level when the serum albumin is not within normal ranges, or when a calcium disorder is suspected despite a normal total calcium level.

Corrected calcium level

One can derive a corrected calcium level when the albumin is abnormal. This is to correct for the change in total calcium due to the change in albumin-bound calcium, and gives an estimate of what the calcium level would be if the albumin were within normal ranges. Corrected calcium (mg/dL) measured total Ca (mg/dL) + 0.8 (4.4 - serum albumin g/dL), where 4.4 represents the average albumin level. When there is hypoalbuminemia (a lower than normal albumin), the corrected calcium level is higher than the total calcium.

Effector organs


About 25 Mole (unit) of calcium enters the body in a normal diet. It can be lower if the diet is deficient in milk or other calcium-containing substances. Of this, about 40% (10 mmol) is absorbed in gut, and 5 mmol leaves the body in feces, netting 5 mmol of calcium a day. Vitamin D is an important co-factor in the intestinal absorption of calcium.


The kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in pro-urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/l. In addition to this, the kidney processes Vitamin D into calcitriol, the active form that is most effective in assisting intestinal absorption. Both processes are stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH).

The role of bone

Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Potassium is released from bone by parathyroid hormone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin.

Regulatory organs

The only real regulatory organ is the parathyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid, and produce parathyroid hormone in response to low calcium levels. The parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce calcitonin in response to high calcium levels, but its significance is much smaller than that of PTH.

Calcium problems

Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are both serious medical disorders. Renal osteodystrophy is a consequence of chronic renal failure related to the calcium metabolism. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia have been linked to calcium metabolism disorders.

Monday, February 13, 2006


Djivan Gasparyan (b. 1928, Solag, Armenia) is a famous Armenian musician and composer. He plays the duduk, a native Armenian shalmey, a relative of the orchestral oboe. He has won four world-wide gold Medal UNESCO competitions (1959, 1962, 1973, and 1980). He has the unique distinction of being the only musician to be given the honorary title of Peoples Artist of Armenia in 1973. A professor at the Yerevan Conservatory, he has instructed and nurtured many performers to professional levels of perfomrance in duduk. In 2002, he received the WOMEX (World Music Expo) lifetime achievement award. He has toured the world several times with a small ensemble playing Armenian folk music. He has collaborated with many artists, such as Lionel Richie, Peter Gabriel and Michael Brook.


I Will Not Be Sad in This World (All Saints)
Moon Shines at Night (All Saints)
Ask me no questions (Traditional Crossroads 4268, 1996)
Apricots from Eden (Traditional Crossroads 4276, 1996)
The Crow, soundtrack
Black Rock, with Michael Brook (Realworld 46230, 1998)
Djivan Gasparyan Quartet (Libra Music 1998)
The Seige, soundtrack (1998)
Heavenly Duduk (Network 1999)
Armenian Fantasies (Network 34801, 2000)
Gladiator, soundtrack
Fuad (2001)


The R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial engine aircraft engines produced in the United States. It was a twin row, supercharged, air-cooled, radial engine with 18 cylinders and a displacement of 3,350 inch� (55 L). Power ranged from 2,200 to over 3,700 hp (1,640 to 2,760 kW), depending on the model. First developed prior to the war, the engine required a long time to mature before finally powering the B-29 bomber just before the end of World War II. After the war the engine matured sufficiently to become a major civilian airliner design, notably in its Turbo-Compound forms. In 1927 Wright Aeronautical introduced their famous Cyclone engine, which powered a number of designs in the 1930s. After merging with Curtiss to become Curtiss-Wright in 1929, an effort was started to redesign the engine to the 1,000 hp (746 kW) class. The new Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 first ran successfully in 1935, and would become one of the most-used aircraft engines in the 1930s and WWII. At about the same time Pratt & Whitney had started a development of their equally famous Pratt & Whitney Wasp design into a larger and much more powerful two-row design that would easily compete with this larger Cyclone. In 1935 Wright decided to follow P&Ws lead, and started to develop much larger engines based on the mechanicals of the Cyclone. The result were two designs with a somewhat shorter stroke, a 14 cylinder design that would evolve into the Wright R-2600, and a much larger 18 cylinder design that became the R-3350. The first R-3350 was run in May 1937, but proved to be rather tempermental. Continued development was slow, both due to the complex nature of the engine, as well as the R-2600 receiving considerably more attention. The R-3350 didnt fly until 1941, after the prototype Douglas XB-19 had been re-designed from the Allison V-3420 to the R-3350. Things changed dramatically in 1940 with the introduction of a new contract by the USAAC to develop a long-range bomber capable of flying from the US to Germany with a 2,000lb bomb load. Although smaller than the Bomber D designs that led to the B-19, the new designs required roughly the same sort of power. When preliminary designs were returned in the summer of 1940, three of the four designs were based on the R-3350. Suddenly the engine was the future of Army aviation, and serious efforts to get the design into production started. By 1943 the ultimate development of the new bomber program, the B-29, was flying. However the engines proved rather tempermental, and showed an alarming tendency to overheat. A number of changes were introduced into the aircraft production line in order to provide more cooling at low speeds, and the planes were rushed to operate in the Pacific in 1944. This proved unwise, as the overheating problems were not completely solved, and the planes had a tendency to burst into flame after takeoff. Early versions of the R-3350 were equipped with carburettors. Fuel mixture problems caused severe problems with inadequate fuel mixture distribution. After the war the system was changed to used fuel injection, and the engine reliability improved immediately. The engine soon became a favourite of large aircraft of all designs, most notably the Lockheed Constellation and Douglas DC-7. Following the war, in order to better serve the civilian market, the Turbo-Compound system was developed in order to deliver better gas milage. In these versions of the engine three turbines were attached to the exhaust piping, using the power not to deliver additional boost as in a normal turbocharger, but geared directly to the engine crankshaft in order to deliver more power. This recovered about 20% of the heat of the exhaust, which would otherwise be wasted. By this point reliability had further improved, with the mean time between overhauls at 3,500 hours, and specific fuel consumption on the order of 0.4 lb/hp.hour (243 g/kWh).


R-3350-13 2,200 hp (1,641 kW)
R-3350-23 2,200 hp (1,640 kW)
R-3350-24W 2,500 hp (1,900 kW)
R-3350-32W 3,700 hp (2,800 kW)
R-3350-53 2,700 hp (2,013 kW) airlistbox

Sunday, February 12, 2006


Erving Goffman (June 11, 1922 - November 19, 1982), Canadian sociology and writer. Goffman received his B.A. at the University of Toronto in 1945, his M.A., and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, in 1949 and 1953 respectively. Author of the seminal text Asylums (book), for which he gathered information at the National Institute of Mental Health in Washington, that describes institutionalization as a response by patients to the bureaucratic structures of a hospital setting. He also authored The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, a study of social ritual and the personas we create for ourselves. Goffman uses phenomenology to understand how humans perceive the interactions that they observe and take part in. To Goffman there is no real capital T Truth, but interpretations that are real to each individual.

Main works

1956: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, University of Edinburgh Social Sciences Research Centre
1961: Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. New York, Doubleday
1963: Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice-Hall


Ellis Welwood Sifton was a Canada recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to United Kingdom and Commonwealth forces. He was 25 years old, and a Lance Sergeant in the 18th Bn., Western Ontario Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the World War I when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC. On 9 April 1917 at Neuville-St.-Vaast, France, during an attack on enemy trenches, Lance-Sergeant Siftons company was held up by machine-gun fire which inflicted many casualties. The sergeant located the gun and charged it alone, killing all the crew. A small enemy party then advanced down the trench but he managed to hold them off with bayonet and clubbed rifle until his comrades arrived and ended the unequal fight, but in carrying out this gallant act he was killed. His conspicuous valeur undoubtedly saved many lives and contributed largely to the success of the operation.


Monuments To Courage (David Harvey, 1999)
The Register of the Victoria Cross (This England, 1997)

Saturday, February 11, 2006


Johannes Tinctoris (c.1435 � 1511) was a Flemish composer and music theory of the Renaissance. He is known to have studied in Orleans, and to have been master of the choir there, he also may have been director of choirboys at Chartres. Because he was employed at Cambrai Cathedral for four months in 1460, it has been speculated that he studied with Guillaume Dufay, who spent the last part of his life there, certainly Tinctoris must at least have known the elder Burgundian school there. Tinctoris went to Naples in 1472 and spent most of the rest of his life in Italy. Tinctoris published many volumes of writings on music. While they are not particularly original, borrowing heavily from ancient writers (including Boethius, Isidore of Seville, and others) they give an impressively detailed record of the technical practices and procedures used by composers of the day. He wrote the first dictionary of musical terms (the Diffinitorium musices), a book on the characteristics of the musical mode (music), a treatise on proportions, and a book on counterpoint, which is particularly useful in charting the development of voice-leading and harmony in the transitional period between Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez. The writings by Tinctoris were influential on composers and other music theorists for the remainder of the Renaissance. While not much of the music of Tinctoris has survived, that which has shows a love for complex, smoothly flowing polyphony, as well as a liking for unusually low tessitura, occasionally descending in the bass voice to the C two octaves below middle C (showing an interesting similarity to Johannes Ockeghem in this regard). He wrote mass (music), motet and a few chanson. Tinctoris was also known as a cleric, a poet, a mathematician, and a lawyer, there is even one reference to him as an accomplished painter.


Ashley Suzanne Johnson (born August 9, 1983) is an United States actor. She played the role of Christine Ellen Chrissy Seaver on the television show Growing Pains from 1990 to 1992. She also appeared in the 1994 situation comedy All American Girl and is also is the voice of Gretchen Grundler on Disneys Recess and was Mel Gibsons daughter in the 2000 movie What Women Want. On the Teen Titans animated series, she voiced Terra-(comics) during the shows second season. She also voices Jinmei on Super Robot Monkey Team Hyperforce Go. actor-stub imdb name id 0424534 name: Ashley Johnson

Friday, February 10, 2006


fiction Whamon is a large aqautic Digimon, who is the NetOceans sworn protector.



Blasting Spout
Tidal Wave

Important Events

Digimon Adventure

The kids first encountered Whamon when they were on their way to Server, though it was not in better condition. Whamon was innfected with a Black Gear & he swallowed them. When they came to rest in his stomach, they discovered a Black Gear imbedded inside him. Taichi used his Digivice to destroy it, freeing Whamon from its influence. He shot them out his blowhole, but their raft was shattered in the process. To make it up to them, he would take them to Server. When they asked if he knew anything about the Tags, he mentioned that he had seen Devimon hide something underwater once, some time ago. The kids climbed inside him, and he took them to and underwater cavern, where they found their Tags. He then carried them the rest of the way to Server. The gang who later meet Whamon again when they were cornered by the DarkMaster MetalSeadramon. Whamon arrived in the nick of time to save them, carrying them off to the depths of the Net Ocean. After eveading the Divermon, Whamon then brought the kids to the surface, but there were immediately attacked again by MetalSeadramon. Whamon used his Tidal Wave attack to wash away the straggling Divermon, and then, when War Greymon was caught between MetalSeadramons jaws, saved him by head butting the villain. Enraged, MetalSeadramon fired his River of Power attack at Whamon, ripping a hole through his skull & fatally injuring him. As Whamon slowly died, he implored the DigiDestined to save the world.

Digimon Frontier

After escaping from the Castle of Crystal, the DigiDestined ended up in a undersea cavern. It was there they met a caustrophobic Whamon. It seemed, that when Grumblemon was taking Fractal code from the land, Whamon ended up getting sucked in by the voice & got trapped since. But before he did, he eat a mass of seaweed that held the Beast Spirit of Thunder. After Junpe Shibayama defeated Grumblemon, the stress from the battle cause the undersea cavern to flood. But Whamon carried the kids to safety. In gratitude for getting him out of there, Whamon took them to the nearest piece of land at Water Terminal.


Lord Whamon has become too old to fight the evil Marine Devimon who has invaded the Net Ocean. Hes thankful that Gomamon reports to him, dispite he doesnt favor it. Upon hearing that Taichi Yagami & Veedramon have come, he rustled out from the bottom of the ocean to meet the heroes. He reveals that everything in the Digimon World, including digimon, is just data. He also elaborates that he and Lord Holy Angemon are support programs to help Taichi defeat the virus which threatens the data: Daemon. So, giving him the Digivice 01, Lord Whamon appoints Gon as the next Net Ocean Protector & sucummbs to death so after.


Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Mahadev Mukherjee is a communist political party in India. Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) was formed in 1969 by the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries, who had split from Communist Party of India (Marxist) in 1967. CPI(ML) advocated armed struggle and condemned participation in parliamentary elections and work in mass movements. Initially the party leaders were Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. In 1971 the party was split in two, when Satyanarayan Singh revolted against Majumdarss sectarianism. CPI(ML) of Mahadev Mukherjee has its roots in the faction that remained loyal to Majumdar. Mukherjee and Sharma became leaders of the CPI(ML) after Majumdars death, but they had no real control over the party organization and various state units started working in an autonomous manner. In 1973 Majumdars CPI(ML) was split in pro- and anti-Lin Biao-factions. Mukherjee was leading the pro-Lin Biaofaction. Mukherjee was however expelled from this group, after which he formed his own CPI(ML). Today the CPI(ML) of Mukherjee is a very small group. The party publishes Liberation (English language), Deshabrati (Bengali), Lokyudda (Hindi) and Era Janda (Telugu).

Thursday, February 09, 2006


Members of the 101st United States Congress: States



Howell Heflin (D)
Dick Shelby (D)


1. Sonny Callahan (R)
2. Bill Dickinson (R)
3. Glenn Browder (D)
4. Tom Bevill (D)
5. Ronnie G. Flippo (D)
6. Ben Erdreich (D)
7. Claude Harris (D)



Ted Stevens (R)
Frank H. Murkowski (R)


At Large - Don Young (R)



Dennis DeConcini (D)
John McCain (R)


1. John J. Rhodes III (R)
2. Morris K. Udall (D)
3. Bob Stump (R)
4. Jon Kyl (R)
5. Jim Kolbe (R)



Dale Bumpers (D)
David Pryor (D)


1. Bill Alexander (D)
2. Tommy F. Robinson (R)
3. John Paul Hammerschmidt (R)
4. Beryl Anthony, Jr. (D)



Alan Cranston (D)
Pete Wilson (R)


1. Douglas H. Bosco (D)
2. Wally Herger (R)
3. Robert T. Matsui (D)
4. Vic Fazio (D)
5. Nancy Pelosi (D)
6. Barbara Boxer (D)
7. George Miller (D)
8. Ronald V. Dellums (D)
9. Pete Stark (D)
10. Don Edwards (D)
11. Tom Lantos (D)
12. Tom Campbell (R)
13. Norman Y. Mineta (D)
14. Norman D. Shumway (R)
15. Tony Coelho (D)
16. Leon E. Panetta (D)
17. Chip Pashayan (R)
18. Richard H. Lehman (D)
19. Robert J. Lagomarsino (R)
20. Bill Thomas (R)
21. Elton Gallegly (R)
22. Carlos J. Moorhead (R)
23. Anthony C. Beilenson (D)
24. Henry A. Waxman (D)
25. Edward R. Roybal (D)
26. Howard L. Berman (D)
27. Mel Levine (D)
28. Julian C. Dixon (D)
29. Maxine Waters (D)
30. Matthew G. Martinez (D)
31. Mervyn M. Dymally (D)
32. Glenn M. Anderson (D)
33. David Dreier (R)
34. Esteban E. Torres (D)
35. Jerry Lewis (US politician) (R)
36. George E. Brown, Jr. (D)
37. Al McCandless (R)
38. Bob Dornan (R)
39. William E. Dannemeyer (R)
40. C. Christopher Cox (R)
41. Bill Lowery (R)
42. Dana Rohrabacher (R)
43. Ron Packard (R)
44. Jim Bates (D)
45. Duncan Hunter (R)



William L. Armstrong (R)
Tim Wirth (D)


1. Patricia Schroeder (D)
2. David E. Skaggs (D)
3. Ben Nighthorse Campbell (D)
4. Hank Brown (R)
5. Joel Hefley (R)
6. Dan Schaefer (R)



Christopher J. Dodd (D)
Joseph I. Lieberman (D)


1. Barbara B. Kennelly (D)
2. Sam Gejdenson (D)
3. Bruce A. Morrison (D)
4. Christopher Shays (R)
5. John G. Rowland (R)
6. Nancy L. Johnson (R)



William V. Roth, Jr. (R)
Joseph R. Biden, Jr. (D)


At Large - Thomas R. Carper (D)



Bob Graham (D)
Connie Mack (politician) (R)


1. Earl Hutto (D)
2. Bill Grant (R)
3. Charles E. Bennett (D)
4. Craig T. James (R)
5. Bill McCollum (R)
6. Cliff Stearns (R)
7. Sam M. Gibbons (D)
8. C.W. Bill Young (R)
9. Michael Bilirakis (R)
10. Andy Ireland (R)
11. Bill Nelson (D)
12. Tom Lewis (R)
13. Porter J. Goss (R)
14. Harry A. Johnston (D)
15. E. Clay Shaw, Jr. (R)
16. Lawrence J. Smith (D)
17. William Lehman (D)
18. Claude Pepper (D)
19. Dante B. Fascell (D)

Georgia (U.S. state)


Sam Nunn (D)
Wyche Fowler, Jr. (D)


1. Lindsay Thomas (D)
2. Charles Hatcher (D)
3. Richard Ray (D)
4. Ben Jones (D)
5. John Lewis (politician) (D)
6. Newt Gingrich (R)
7. George Darden (D)
8. J. Roy Rowland (D)
9. Ed Jenkins (D)
10. Doug Barnard, Jr. (D)



Daniel K. Inouye (D)
Spark M. Matsunaga (D)


1. Patricia Saiki (R)
2. Daniel K. Akaka (D)



Larry Craig (R)
Steve Symms (R)


1. Larry E. Craig (R)
2. Richard Stallings (D)



Alan J. Dixon (D)
Paul Simon (D)


1. Charles A. Hayes (D)
2. Gus Savage (D)
3. Marty Russo (D)
4. George E. Sangmeister (D)
5. William O. Lipinski (D)
6. Henry J. Hyde (R)
7. Cardiss Collins (D)
8. Dan Rostenkowski (D)
9. Sidney R. Yates (D)
10. John Edward Porter (R)
11. Frank Annunzio (D)
12. Philip M. Crane (R)
13. Harris W. Fawell (R)
14. Dennis Hastert (R)
15. Edward Madigan (R)
16. Lynn Martin (R)
17. Lane Evans (D)
18. Robert H. Michel (R)
19. Terry L. Bruce (D)
20. Richard J. Durbin (D)
21. Jerry F. Costello (D)
22. Glenn Poshard (D)



Dick Lugar (R)
Dan Coats (R)


1. Peter J. Visclosky (D)
2. Philip R. Sharp (D)
3. John Hiler (R)
4. Jill L. Long (D)
5. Jim Jontz (D)
6. Dan Burton (R)
7. John T. Myers (R)
8. Frank McCloskey (D)
9. Lee H. Hamilton (D)
10. Andrew Jacobs, Jr. (D)



Chuck Grassley (R)
Tom Harkin (D)


1. James A. Leach (R)
2. Tom Tauke (R)
3. Dave Nagle (D)
4. Neal Smith (D)
5. Jim Ross Lightfoot (R)
6. Fred Grandy (R)



Bob Dole (R)
Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R)


1. Pat Roberts (R)
2. Jim Slattery (D)
3. Jan Meyers (R)
4. Dan Glickman (D)
5. Bob Whittaker (R)



Wendell H. Ford (D)
Mitch McConnell (R)


1. Carroll Hubbard, Jr. (D)
2. William H. Natcher (D)
3. Romano L. Mazzoli (D)
4. Jim Bunning (R)
5. Harold Rogers (R)
6. Larry J. Hopkins (R)
7. Carl C. Perkins (D)



J. Bennett Johnston (D)
John B. Breaux (D)


1. Bob Livingston (R)
2. Lindy Boggs (D)
3. Billy Tauzin (D)
4. Jim McCrery (R)
5. Jerry Huckaby (D)
6. Richard H. Baker (R)
7. Jimmy Hayes (D)
8. Clyde C. Holloway (R)



William S. Cohen (R)
George J. Mitchell (D)


1. Joseph E. Brennan (D)
2. Olympia J. Snowe (R)



Paul S. Sarbanes (D)
Barbara A. Mikulski (D)


1. Roy Dyson (D)
2. Helen Delich Bentley (R)
3. Benjamin L. Cardin (D)
4. Tom McMillen (D)
5. Steny H. Hoyer (D)
6. Beverly B. Byron (D)
7. Kweisi Mfume (D)
8. Constance A. Morella (R)



Edward M. Kennedy (D)
John Kerry (D)


1. Silvio O. Conte (R)
2. Richard E. Neal (D)
3. Joseph D. Early (D)
4. Barney Frank (D)
5. Chester G. Atkins (D)
6. Nicholas Mavroules (D)
7. Edward J. Markey (D)
8. Joseph P. Kennedy II (D)
9. John Joseph Moakley (D)
10. Gerry E. Studds (D)
11. Brian Donnelly (D)



Donald W. Riegle, Jr. (D)
Carl Levin (D)


1. John Conyers, Jr. (D)
2. Carl D. Pursell (R)
3. Howard Wolpe (D)
4. Fred Upton (R)
5. Paul B. Henry (R)
6. Milton Robert Carr (D)
7. Dale E. Kildee (D)
8. Bob Traxler (D)
9. Guy Vander Jagt (R)
10. Bill Schuette (R)
11. Robert W. Davis (R)
12. David E. Bonior (D)
13. George W. Crockett, Jr. (D)
14. Dennis M. Hertel (D)
15. William D. Ford (D)
16. John D. Dingell (D)
17. Sander M. Levin (D)
18. William S. Broomfield (R)



Rudy Boschwitz (R)
Dave Durenberger (R)


1. Timothy J. Penny (D)
2. Vin Weber (R)
3. Bill Frenzel (R)
4. Bruce F. Vento (D)
5. Martin Olav Sabo (D)
6. Gerry Sikorski (D)
7. Arlan Stangeland (R)
8. James L. Oberstar (D)



Thad Cochran (R)
Trent Lott (R)


1. Jamie L. Whitten (D)
2. Mike Espy (D)
3. G.V. Montgomery (D)
4. Mike Parker (D)
5. Gene Taylor (D)



John C. Danforth (R)
Kit Bond (R)


1. William L. Clay (D)
2. Jack Buechner (R)
3. Dick Gephardt (D)
4. Ike Skelton (D)
5. Alan Wheat (D)
6. Tom Coleman (R)
7. Mel Hancock (R)
8. Bill Emerson (R)
9. Harold L. Volkmer (D)



Max Baucus (D)
Conrad Burns (R)


1. Pat Williams (D)
2. Ron Marlenee (R)



Jim Exon (D)
J. Robert Kerrey (D)


1. Doug Bereuter (R)
2. Peter Hoagland (D)
3. Virginia Smith (R)



Harry Reid (D)
Richard H. Bryan (D)


1. James Bilbray (D)
2. Barbara F. Vucanovich (R)

New Hampshire


Gordon J. Humphrey (R)
Warren B. Rudman (R)


1. Robert C. Smith (R)
2. Charles G. Douglas (R)

New Jersey


Bill Bradley (D)
Frank R. Lautenberg (D)


1. Robert Andrews (D)
2. William J. Hughes (D)
3. Frank Pallone, Jr. (D)
4. Christopher H. Smith (R)
5. Marge Roukema (R)
6. Bernard J. Dwyer (D)
7. Matthew J. Rinaldo (R)
8. Robert A. Roe (D)
9. Robert G. Torricelli (D)
10. Donald M. Payne (D)
11. Dean A. Gallo (R)
12. Jim Courter (R)
13. H. James Saxton (R)
14. Frank J. Guarini (D)

New Mexico


Pete V. Domenici (R)
Jeff Bingaman (D)


1. Steven H. Schiff (R)
2. Joe Skeen (R)
3. Bill Richardson (politician) (D)

New York


Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D)
Al DAmato (R)


1. Georgr D. Hochbrueckner (D)
2. Thomas J. Downey (D)
3. Robert J. Mrazek (D)
4. Norman F. Lent (R)
5. Raymond J. McGrath (R)
6. Floyd H. Flake (D)
7. Gary L. Ackerman (D)
8. James H. Scheuer (D)
9. Thomas J. Manton (D)
10. Charles E. Schumer (D)
11. Edolphus Towns (D)
12. Major R. Owens (D)
13. Stephen J. Solarz (D)
14. Susan Molinari (R)
15. Bill Green (R)
16. Charles B. Rangel (D)
17. Ted Weiss (D)
18. Robert Garcia (D)
19. Eliot L. Engel (D)
20. Nita M. Lowey (D)
21. Hamilton Fish, Jr. (R)
22. Benjamin A. Gilman (R)
23. Michael R. McNulty (D)
24. Gerald B.H. Solomon (R)
25. Sherwood Boehlert (R)
26. David Martin (R)
27. James T. Walsh (R)
28. Matthew F. McHugh (D)
29. Frank Horton (R)
30. Louise M. Slaughter (D)
31. Bill Paxon (R)
32. John J. LaFalce (D)
33. Henry J. Nowak (D)
34. Amo Houghton (R)

North Carolina


Jesse Helms (R)
Terry Sanford (D)


1. Walter B. Jones, Sr. (D)
2. Tim Valentine (D)
3. H. Martin Lancaster (D)
4. David Price (D)
5. Stephen L. Neal (D)
6. Howard Coble (R)
7. Charlie Rose (congressman) (D)
8. Bill Hefner (D)
9. Alex McMillan (R)
10. Cass Ballenger (R)
11. James McClure Clarke (D)

North Dakota


Quentin N. Burdick (D)
Kent Conrad (D)


At Large - Byron L. Dorgan (D)



John Glenn (D)
Howard Metzenbaum (D)


1. Tom Luken (D)
2. Bill Gradison (R)
3. Tony Hall (D)
4. Mike Oxley (R)
5. Paul Gillmor (R)
6. Bob McEwen (R)
7. Mike DeWine (R)
8. Donald Buz Lukens (R)
9. Marcy Kaptur (D)
10. Clarence E. Miller (R)
11. Dennis E. Eckart (D)
12. John Kasich (R)
13. Don Pease (D)
14. Thomas C. Sawyer (D)
15. Chalmers Wylie (R)
16. Ralph Regula (R)
17. Jim Traficant (D)
18. Douglas Applegate (D)
19. Edward F. Feighan (D)
20. Mary Rose Oakar (D)
21. Louis Stokes (D)



David L. Boren (D)
Don Nickles (R)


1. James M. Inhofe (R)
2. Mike Synar (D)
3. Wes Watkins (D)
4. Dave McCurdy (D)
5. Mickey Edwards (R)
6. Glenn English (D)



Mark O. Hatfield (R)
Bob Packwood (R)


1. Les AuCoin (D)
2. Bob Smith (R)
3. Ron Wyden (D)
4. Peter A. DeFazio (D)
5. Denny Smith (R)



John Heinz (R)
Arlen Specter (R)


1. Thomas M. Foglietta (D)
2. William H. Gray, III (D)
3. Robert A. Borski (D)
4. Joe Kolter (D)
5. Dick Schulze (R)
6. Gus Yatron (D)
7. Curt Weldon (R)
8. Peter H. Kostmayer (D)
9. Bud Shuster (R)
10. Joseph M. McDade (R)
11. Paul E. Kanjorski (D)
12. John P. Murtha (D)
13. Lawrence Coughlin (D)
14. William J. Coyne (D)
15. Don Ritter (R)
16. Robert Smith Walker (R)
17. George W. Gekas (R)
18. Doug Walgren (D)
19. William F. Goodling (R)
20. Joseph M. Gaydos (D)
21. Tom Ridge (R)
22. Austin J. Murphy (D)
23. William F. Clinger (R)

Rhode Island


Claiborne Pell (D)
John H. Chafee (R)


1. Ronald K. Machtley (R)
2. Claudine Schneider (R)

South Carolina


Strom Thurmond (R)
Ernest F. Hollings (D)


1. Arthur Ravenel, Jr. (R)
2. Floyd Spence (R)
3. Butler Derrick (D)
4. Liz J. Patterson (D)
5. John M. Spratt, Jr. (D)
6. Robin Tallon (D)

South Dakota


Larry Pressler (R)
Thomas A. Daschle (D)


At Large - Tim Johnson (D)



Jim Sasser (D)
Al Gore (D)


1. James H. Quillen (R)
2. John J. Duncan, Jr. (R)
3. Marilyn Lloyd (D)
4. Jim Cooper (D)
5. Bob Clement (D)
6. Bart Gordon (D)
7. Don Sundquist (R)
8. John S. Tanner (D)
9. Harold E. Ford, Sr. (D)



Lloyd Bentsen (D)
Phil Gramm (R)


1. Jim Chapman (D)
2. Charles Wilson (politician) (D)
3. Steve Bartlett (R)
4. Ralph M. Hall (D)
5. John Bryant (D)
6. Joe Barton (R)
7. Bill Archer (R)
8. Jack Fields (R)
9. Jack Brooks (D)
10. J.J. Pickle (D)
11. Marvin Leath (D)
12. Jim Wright (D)
13. Bill Sarpalius (D)
14. Greg Laughlin (D)
15. Kika de la Garza (D)
16. Ronald D. Coleman (D)
17. Charles W. Stenholm (D)
18. Mickey Leland (D)
19. Larry Combest (R)
20. Henry B. Gonzalez (D)
21. Lamar S. Smith (R)
22. Tom DeLay (R)
23. Albert G. Bustamante (D)
24. Martin Frost (D)
25. Michael A. Andrews (D)
26. Richard K. Armey (R)
27. Solomon P. Ortiz (D)



Jake Garn (R)
Orrin G. Hatch (R)


1. James V. Hansen (R)
2. Wayne Owens (D)
3. Howard C. Nielson (R)



Patrick Leahy (D)
James Jeffords (R)


At Large - Peter Smith (R)



John W. Warner (R)
Charles S. Robb (D)


1. Herbert H. Bateman (R)
2. Owen B. Pickett (D)
3. Thomas J. Bliley, Jr. (R)
4. Norman Sisisky (D)
5. Lewis F. Payne, Jr. (D)
6. Jim Olin (D)
7. D. French Slaughter, Jr. (R)
8. Stan Parris (R)
9. Rick Boucher (D)
10. Frank R. Wolf (R)



Brock Adams (D)
Slade Gorton (R)


1. John Miller (R)
2. Al Swift (D)
3. Jolene Unsoeld (D)
4. Sid Morrison (R)
5. Thomas S. Foley (D)
6. Norman D. Dicks (D)
7. Jim McDermott (D)
8. Rod Chandler (R)

West Virginia


Robert C. Byrd (D)
John D. Rockefeller IV (D)


1. Alan B. Mollohan (D)
2. Harley O. Staggers, Jr. (D)
3. Robert E. Wise, Jr. (D)
4. Nick J. Rahall II (D)



Herb Kohl (D)
Bob Kasten (R)


1. Les Aspin (D)
2. Robert W. Kastenmeier (D)
3. Steve Gunderson (R)
4. Gerald D. Kleczka (D)
5. Jim Moody (D)
6. Thomas E. Petri (R)
7. David R. Obey (D)
8. Toby Roth (R)
9. F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R)



Malcolm Wallop (R)
Alan K. Simpson (R)


At Large - Craig Thomas (politician) (R) U.S. Territories

American Samoa


Eni F.H. Faleomavaega (D)

District of Columbia


Walter E. Fauntroy (D)



Ben Blaz (D)

Puerto Rico

Resident Commissioner

Jaime B. Fuster (Pop. Dem.)

Virgin Islands


Ron de Lugo (D)
100th United States Congress United States Congress Next:
102nd United States Congress


Richard Greene (August 25, 1918 - June 1, 1985) was a noted British movie and television actor. A matinee idol who appeared in more than 40 films, he was perhaps best known for the long-running British TV series The Adventures of Robin Hood (series) (1955-1960). He was born in Plymouth in 1918, and died in London 1985.


Against All Odds (Blood of Fu Manchu) (1969)
The Bandits of Corsica (1953)
Beyond the Curtain (1961)
The Black Castle (1952)
Captain Scarlett (1953)
The Castle of Fu Manchu (1968)
Contraband Spain (Contrabando) (1955)
Coriolanus (1951) (made for tv)
The Desert Hawk (1950)
Dont Take It to Heart (1945)
The Fan (Lady Windermeres Fan) (1949)
The Fighting OFlynn (1949)
Flying Fortress (1942)
Forever Amber (1947)
Four Men and a Prayer (1938)
Gaiety George (Showtime) (1946)
Here I Am a Stranger (1939)
The Hound of the Baskervilles (1939)
I Was an Adventuress (1940)
Island of the Lost (1968)
Kentucky (1938)
Little Old New York (1940)
The Little Princess (1939)
Lorna Doone (1951)
My Daughter Joy (Operation X) (1950)
My Lucky Star (1938)
Now Barabbas (1949)
Robin Hoods Greatest Adventures (1956)
Robin Hood, the Movie (1958)
Robin Hood: The Quest for the Crown (1958)
Rogues March (1952)
Shadow of the Eagle (1950)
Sing As We Go (1934) (bit part)
Stanley and Livingstone (1939)
Submarine Patrol (1938)
Sword of Sherwood Forest (1961)
That Dangerous Age (If This Be Sin) (1949)
Unpublished Story (1942)
The Yellow Canary (1943) Richard Greene (referee) (-1983) was the referee in the fight between Duk Koo Kim and Ray Mancini.

Wednesday, February 08, 2006


In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). For example, in many countries a person under the age of 18 is a minor. Most countries give additional legal protection to minors, and all countries except the United States and Somalia have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Examples of such protections include statutory rape laws, prohibitions against the use of alcohol/cigarettes, school attendance requirements, the need for adult co-signers on legal documents (e.g. contracts), drivers license requirements, separate punishment and trial (e.g. juvenile courts), child labor laws, and various other protections against exploitation and abuse. At the same time as providing special protection, the law also denies juveniles some rights that are available to adults, such as the right to vote. Some jurisdictions allow juvenile emancipation, where a minor who can prove that they are competent may take on some rights that are normally reserved for legal adults. Not all such minor restrictions are necessarily tied to the same transitional age, but the transition from minor to adult is typically defined by the age at which one may independently enter into contracts. In the 20th century most countries have allowed all these transitions to occur by the age of 18, but some countries allow some adult rights at the age of 16, and others delay them until the age of 21. See also:
age of consent
age of majority
marriageable age
voting age
age of criminal responsibility
child soldier
child pornography


Regnum Animalia
Phylum Chordate
Classis Reptile
Ordo Squamata
Subordo Sauria
Familia Agamidae
Genus Trapelus

Classification of genus Trapelus

Trapelus agilis
Trapelus blanfordi
Trapelus flavimaculatus
Trapelus jayakari
Trapelus lessonae
Trapelus megalonyx
Trapelus microtympanum
Trapelus mutabilis
Trapelus pallidus
Trapelus persicus
Trapelus rubrigularis
Trapelus ruderatus
Trapelus sanguinolentus
Trapelus savignii
Trapelus tournevillei

Tuesday, February 07, 2006


Eta Cassiopeiae (Cas, sometimes referred to as Achird) is a star system 19.4 light years away from Earth. It is in the constellation Cassiopeia-(constellation). The primary star in the Cas system is a yellow main sequence star of spectral type G3V, putting it in the same spectral class as our sun, which is of spectral type G2V. It therefore resembles what our sun might look like if we were to observe it from Cas. The star is of apparent magnitude 3.45. There is a companion of magnitude 7.51, and six dimmer companions, making eight in all. stub


buddhism Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (c. 563 BC - c. 483 BC). Buddhist philosophy deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology.


From its inception, Buddhism has had a strong philosophical component. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain Hindu philosophy philosophical concepts, in which the Buddha had been instructed by various teachers. Buddhism rejects atheism, theism, monism, and dualism alike. The Buddha criticized all concepts of metaphysical being and non-being, and this critique is inextricable from the founding of Buddhism. Particular points of Buddhist philosophizing have often been the subject of disputes between different schools of Buddhism. Metaphysical questions such as Is there a god? and Does the soul (Atman) really exist? have divided the Buddhas followers even during his own lifetime, and epistemological debates over the proper modes of evidence have always been lively in Buddhism. Readers should note that theory for its own sake is not valued in Buddhism, but theory pursued in the interest of enlightenment for oneself or others is fully consistent with Buddhist values and ethics.

Buddhism as philosophy?

Some have asserted that Buddhism as a whole is a philosophy rather than a religion. Proponents of such a view may argue that (a) Buddhism is non-theism (i.e., it has no special use for the existence or nonexistence of a god or gods) or atheistic and (b) religions necessarily involve some form of theism. Others might contest either part of such an argument. Other arguments for Buddhism as philosophy may claim that Buddhism does not have doctrines in the same sense as other religions, the Buddha himself taught that a person should accept a teaching only if ones own experience verifies it. Arguments against Buddhism as a philosophy might call attention to the way Buddhisms pervasive inconclusion of supernatural entities (not gods in the sense of Western monotheism, of course), to what most scholars identify as worship practices (ceremonial reverence of saints, etc.), to Buddhisms thoroughly developed hierarchies of clergy (not usually characteristic of a philosophy), and its overall religious organization. A third perspective might take the position that Buddhism can be practiced either as a religion or as a philosophy. A similar distinction is often made with reference to Taoism. Lama Anagorika Govinda expressed it as follows in the book A Living Buddhism for the West: Thus we could say that the Buddhas Dharma is, as experience and as a way to practical realisation, a religion, as the intellectual formulation of this experience, a philosophy, and as a result of self-observation and analysis, a psychology. Whoever treads this path acquires a norm of behaviour that is not dictated from without, but is the result of an inner process of maturation and that we - regarding it from without - can call morality. It should also be noted that in the South and East Asian cultures in which Buddhism achieved most of its development, the distinction between philosophy and religion is somewhat unclear and possibly quite spurious, so this may be a semantic problem arising in the West alone.

Philosophical areas addressed in Buddhism


Decisive in distinguishing Buddhism from what is commonly called Hinduism is the issue of epistemology justification. The schools of Indian History of logic recognize a certain set of valid justifications for knowledge, while Buddhism recognizes a smaller set. Both accept perception and argument, for example, but for the orthodox schools, the received textual tradition (e.g., the Vedas) is in itself an epistemological category equal to perception and argument, so that to make a claim that was unsubstantiable by appeal to the textual canon would be as ridiculous as to claim the sky was green. Buddhism, on the other hand, rejected an inflexible reverence of accepted doctrine. As the Buddha said: Do not accept anything by mere tradition... Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures... Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your pre-conceived notions... But when you know for yourselves these things are moral, these things are blameless, these things are praised by the wise, these things, when performed and undertaken, conduce to well-being and happiness then do you live acting accordingly. the Kalama Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya III.65

Metaphysics and phenomenology

Issues arising from the doctrine of anatta

In earliest Buddhism and today still in Theravada, any metaphysical essence or being underlying the play of phenomenal experience is rejected. No soul or permanent self was recognized, and the perception of a continuous identity was held to be an illusion. Any feeling whatsoever, any perception whatsoever, any mental processes whatsoever, any consciousness whatsoever past, future, or present, internal or external, blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near, every consciousness is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am. the Anattalakkhana Sutta, Samyutta Nikaya XXII.59 This teaching, known as anatta, brought up many questions. If there is no atman or Brahman underlying the objects and events of the universe, how could they be explained? What gave them their existence? And if there was no self, who makes the decisions we think we make, and what gets reincarnated? Early Buddhist philosophers and exegetes created a Pluralism (philosophy of mind) metaphysical and phenomenological system in which all experiences of people, things, and events, can be broken down into smaller and smaller perceptual or perceptual-ontological units called Dharma Dharmas in Buddhist phenomenology. These dharmas (roughly synonymous with phenomena) were interpreted differently by different schools: some held they were real, some held only some were real, some held all were illusory, some held they were Shunyata, some held they were intrinsically associated with suffering, etc. Other debates in metaphysics and phenomenology include the issue of the Pudgala, or person, which was inserted by the Pudgalavada school to replace the tman as that which transmigrates and that which carries the burden of karma from one life to another. Other schools made unsurprising objection to this. There were further sub-debates regarding whether the pudgala was real or illusory or something in between. The Yogacara school, somewhat later, would later elevate the mind to act as a substitute for Brahman, much as the Pudgala replaces the tman. In many or all of these debates, some would point out the irony of pursuing questions which the Buddha was often prone to refuse to answer, on the grounds that they were non-conducive to enlightenment. For more detailed information, see Schools of Buddhism and the individual schools themselves.

Dependent Origination

The original positive Buddhist contribution to the field of metaphysics is Pratitya-samutpada, which arises from the Buddhist critique of Indian theories of causality. It states that events are not Predestination, nor are they random, and it rejects notions of direct causation owing to the need for such theories in the Indian context to be undergirded by a substantialist metaphysics. Instead, it posits the arising of events under certain conditions which are inextricable, such that the units in question at no time have independent existence. This being, that becomes. From the arising of this, that arises. This not being, that does not become. From the ceasing of this, that ceases. Samyutta-Nikaya ii.28 Pratitya-samutpada goes on to posit that certain specific events, concepts, or realities are always dependent on other specific things. Craving, for example, is alway dependent on, and caused by, emotion. Emotion is always dependent on contact with our surroundings. This chain of causation purports to show that the cessation of decay, death, and sorrow is indirectly dependent on the cessation of craving, and ultimately dependent on a an all-encompassing stillness. Nagarjuna, one of the most influential Buddhist philosophers, asserted a direct connection between, even identity of, dependent origination, anatta, and sunyata. He pointed out that implicit in the early Buddhist concept of dependent origination is the lack of any substantial being (anatta)underlying the participants in origination, so that they have no independent existence, a state identified as emptiness (sunyata), or emptiness of a nature or essence (sva-bhva). This element of nagarjunas thought is relatively uncontroversial, but it opens the way for his identification of sa M sra and nirvana, which was revolutionary.


This doctrine comes from the Avatamsaka Sutra and its associated schools. It holds that all phenomena are intimately connected. Two images are used to convey this idea. The first is known as Indras net. The net is set with jewels which have the extraordinary property that they reflect all of the other jewels. The second image is that of the world text. This image potrays the world as consisting of an enormous text which is as large as the universe itself. The words of the text are composed of the phenomena that make up the world. However, every atom of the world contains the whole text within it. It is the work of a Buddha to let out the text so that beings can be liberated from suffering. This idea was enormously influential on the Japan monk Kukai in founding the Shingon Buddhism school of Buddhism.


Although there are many ethical tenets in Buddhism that differ depending on whether one is a monk or a layman, and depending on individual schools, the Buddhist system of ethics can always be summed up in the Eightfold Path. And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of suffering precisely this Noble Eightfold Path right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. Samyutta-Nikaya LVI.11 The purpose of living an ethical life is to eliminate craving, and therefore suffering. In this sense, the motivation for ethical living is selfish. But other Buddhist teachings claim that there is no meaningful difference between ourselves and others, therefore one should attempt to increase the happiness of all living things as eagerly as ones own. This is why many Buddhists choose to be vegetarianism.

Historical development of Buddhist philosophy

Early development

The philosophical outlook of Earliest Buddhism was primarily negative, in the sense that it focused on what doctrines to reject more than on what doctrines to accept. This dimension has been preserved by the Madhyamaka school. It includes critical rejections of all views, which is a form of philosophy, but it is reluctant to posit its own. Only knowledge that is useful in achieving enlightenment is valued. The cycle of philosophical upheavals that in part drove the diversification of Buddhism into its many schools and sects only began once Buddhists began attempting to make explicit the implicit philosophy of the Buddha and the early Suttas. After the death of the Buddha, attempts were made to gather his teachings and transmit them in a commonly agreed form, first orally, then also in writing (The Tripitaka). In addition to collecting the Buddhas speeches and rules for monastic life (Vinaya), monks soon undertook it to condense what they considered the essential elements of Buddhist doctrine into lists of categories, provided with extensive commentary. This process took shape from about the 2nd century BC to probably the 2nd century AD.

Later developments

Very soon after, additional teachings began to be added to the list of important Buddhist texts. Many of these altered and refined Buddhist philosophy. More information needs to be added to this section. This is everything from Mahayana to Zen and up to the present.

Comparison with other philosophies

Arthur Schopenhauer in his World as Will and Idea presented a description of suffering and its cause in a Western world garb.
Baruch Spinoza, though he argued for the existence of a permanent reality, asserts that all phenomenal existence is transitory. In his opinion sorrow is conquered by finding an object of knowledge which is not transient, not ephemeral, but is immutable, permanent, everlasting. Buddhism teaches that such a quest is bound to fail.
David Hume, after a relentless analysis of the mind, concluded that consciousness consists of fleeting mental states. Humes Bundle theory is a very similar concept to anatta.

Some Buddhist philosophers


Monday, February 06, 2006


The Baguirmi language (autonym arma) is the language of the Baguirmi people of Chad, belonging to the Nilo-Saharan languages. It is spoken by 44,761 people (as of 1993), mainly in the Chari Baguirmi prefecture. It was the language of the Baguirmi Empire. Baguirmi was given written form, and texts providing basic literacy instruction were composed through the efforts of Don and Orpha Raun late in their Chadian careers, during the 1990s. A font to support the Baguirmi alphabet, and a Keyman input method for Latin keyboards, were developed by Anthony Kimball in 2003, and the body of published Baguirmi literature continues to expand. The majority of this literature is distributed in Chad by David Raun at a token cost, as a service to the Baguirmi-speaking peoples of Chad.


Innocent IX, born Gian Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce (July 22, 1519 - December 30, 1591), who was born to a modest working family in the mountainous commune of Cravegna, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was a canon lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV. He succeeded Gregory as pope on October 29, 1591, but died on December 30 of the same year. His pontificate was too short to be eventful, but the career that led to his election may be examined. Facchinetti was a lawyer, a graduate in 1544 of the University of Bologna, which was pre-eminent in jurisprudence, who became secretary to Cardinal Nicol� Ardinghelli before entering the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, brother of the Duke of Parma and nephew of Pope Paul III, one of the great patrons of the time. The Cardinal, who was archbishop of Avignon, sent Facchinetti there as his ecclesiastical representative and subsequently recalled him to the management of his affairs at Parma, where he was acting governor of the city, 1556-1558. In 1560 Facchinetti was named Bishop of Nicastro in Calabria, and in 1562 was present at the Council of Trent. Pius V sent him as papal nuncio to Venice in 1566 to further the papal alliance with Spain and Venice against the Turks, which ultimately resulted in the victory of Battle of Lepanto (1571), 1571. Relinquishing his see to pursue his career in Rome, he was named titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1572. During the reign of the sickly Gregory XIV who suffered from bouts of malaria, the burden of the papal administration rested on his shoulders. Even before Gregory breathed his last, Spanish and anti-Spanish factions were electioneering for the next pope. Philip IIs highhanded interference at the previous conclave was not forgotten: he had barred all but seven cardinals. This time the Spanish party in the College of Cardinals did not go so far, but they still controlled a majority, and after a quick conclave they raised Facchinetti to the papal chair. Mindful of the origin of his success, he supported, during his two months pontificate, the cause of Philip II of Spain and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France in the civil Wars of Religion, where a papal army was in the field. Death, however, did not permit the realization of Innocents schemes. His great-nephew Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce, juniore was one of two cardinals appointed during the weeks of his pontificate. A later member of the Cardinalate was his great-grand-nephew Cesare Facchinetti (made a Cardinal, 1643)